Experiencing Philosophy – Second Edition
  • Print Publication Date: January 6, 2023
  • eBook Publication Date: November 28, 2022
  • ISBN: 9781554815258 / 1554815258
  • 600 pages; 8" x 10"

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Ebook will also be available for purchase upon publication.

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Experiencing Philosophy – Second Edition

  • Print Publication Date: January 6, 2023
  • eBook Publication Date: November 28, 2022
  • ISBN: 9781554815258 / 1554815258
  • 600 pages; 8" x 10"

Experiencing Philosophy begins with the assumption that philosophy is not merely something you know, but also something you experience and participate in. The book presents philosophical theories and ideas with reference to their practical relevance to the lives of student readers. To this end, a number of engaging features and inserts are provided:

  • Original Sources: Numerous primary readings are included, introducing students directly to the philosophical work of diverse thinkers ranging from Plato to Martin Luther King Jr. Each reading is thoughtfully excerpted and is followed by reflective questions.
  • Philosopher Profiles: Abstract ideas are connected to the lives of real historical figures through fascinating biographical profiles.
  • Take It Personally: To illustrate how philosophy can be useful and relevant, each chapter begins by placing the material in a personal context.
  • Know Thyself Diagnostics: This book takes seriously—as did Socrates—the Delphic Oracle’s dictum to “know thyself.” Students are given self-diagnostics to explore their own philosophical values, ideals, and beliefs.
  • Philosophers in Action: Philosophy is something you do, not just something you know. Prompts are provided throughout the text inviting students to conduct thought experiments, analyze concepts, and discuss and debate controversial points.
  • Thinking about Your Thinking: These “metacognitive prompts” require students to engage in higher-order thinking, not only about the presented readings and ideas, but also with respect to their own values, assumptions, and beliefs.
  • Plus: Built-in study guides, diagrams, famous philosophical quotations, comics, feature boxes, and more!

CONTENTS

  • Chapter I: What Is Philosophy?
  • Chapter II: Understanding Arguments, Claims, and Fallacies of Reasoning
  • Chapter III: Philosophies of Life
  • Chapter IV: Epistemology, Metaphysics, and God
  • Chapter V: Ethics and Moral Decision Making
  • Chapter VI: Political Philosophy

Primary source readings are integrated through the text, and include works from:

  • St. Thomas Aquinas
  • Aristotle
  • Marcus Aurelius
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta
  • René Descartes
  • Epicurus
  • Riffat Hassan
  • Patricia Hill Collins
  • Thomas Hobbes
  • David Hume
  • Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz
  • Immanuel Kant
  • John Locke
  • Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Karl Marx
  • Ashok K. Malhotra
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche
  • Nel Noddings
  • Plato
  • Bertrand Russell
  • Jean-Paul Sartre
  • Susan Wolf
  • Yasuo Yuasa

Chapter 1: What is Philosophy?

  • Take It Personally
  • Know Thyself: My Preconceptions about Philosophy
  • 1.1 What is a Philosopher?
    • Philosophy and Philosophers: Caricatures, Myths, and Realities
    • The Philosopher’s Profile
      • Original Source: Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, Reply to Sor Filotea
    • Wisdom: The Object of Love
  • 1.2 The Practical Value of Philosophy
    • Philosophy’s Relevance in an Age of Technology
    • Therapeutic Applications of Philosophy
  • 1.3 Fields of Philosophy
    • Metaphysics
    • Epistemology
    • Logic
    • Ethics
    • Axiology
    • Social/Political Philosophy
    • Foundational and Disciplinary Philosophies
    • Philosophies of Life
  • 1.4 Approaches to Philosophy
    • Western Philosophy
    • Historical Approaches
    • Non-Traditional and Non-Western Approaches
      • Original Source: Lee Hester, “Truth and Native American Epistemology”
    • Feminist Approaches
    • Spiritually-Based Philosophical Traditions
      • Original Source: Abu Hamid al-Ghazali, Al-Munqidh min al-Dalal (Deliverance from Error)
    • Modern Western Philosophy
      • Original Source: Bertrand Russell, The Problems of Philosophy
  • Progress Check
  • Study Guide

Chapter 2: Understanding Arguments, Claims, and Fallacies of Reasoning

  • Take It Personally
  • Know Thyself: How Rational Am I?
  • 2.1 What is an Argument?
    • Arguments vs. Opinions and Other Non-Arguments
    • Attitude Adjustments for Argument
    • Benefits of Argument
    • The Socratic Method
      • Original Source: Plato, Euthyphro
  • 2.2 Deductive Arguments
    • Modus Ponens
    • Modus Tollens
    • Hypothetical Syllogisms / Chain Arguments
    • Disjunctive Syllogisms
    • Categorical Syllogisms or Syllogisms of Class Membership
    • Validity, Truth, and Soundness
  • 2.3 Non-Deductive Arguments
    • Argument from Past Experience
    • Argument by Analogy
    • Argument by Inductive Generalization
  • 2.4 Evaluating Claims
    • Factual Statements
    • Value Judgments
    • Conceptual Claims
  • 2.5 Informal Logical Fallacies
    • Ad Hominem Fallacy
    • Straw Person Fallacy
    • Circular Reasoning/Begging the Question Fallacy
    • Two Wrongs Fallacy
    • Slippery Slope Fallacy
    • Appealing to Authority Fallacy
    • Red Herring Fallacy
    • Guilt by Association Fallacy
  • Progress Check
  • Study Guide

Chapter 3: Philosophies of Life

  • Take it Personally
  • Know Thyself: The Philosophy of Life Preference Indicator
  • 3.1 Stoicism: A Prescription for Peace of Mind
    • Stoicism’s Cynical Origins
    • The Stoic Universe
    • How to Live in a Fated Universe
    • Freedom and Value
    • Purpose of Life
    • Emotions in Life
    • How to Progress Morally
      • Original Source: Marcus Aurelius, The Meditations of Marcus Aurelius
  • 3.2 Existentialism: Born Free, Let Me Be Me
    • Methods
    • Philosophers Associated with Existentialism
    • Existentialism as a Revolt
    • Essence versus Existence
    • Individuality and Subjective Experience
    • Existential Freedom
      • Original Source: Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism is a Humanism
  • 3.3 The Meaning of Life
    • Meaningful Lives
      • Original Source: Susan Wolf, “The Meanings of Lives”
    • Viktor Frankl and the Will-To-Meaning
  • 3.4 Hedonism: Pleasure is the Measure
    • Psychological versus Ethical Hedonism
    • Aristippus of Cyrene
    • Epicurus
      • Original Source: Epicurus, Letter to Menoeceus
  • 3.5 Buddhism as a Philosophy of Life
    • The Four Noble Truths
    • The Noble Eight-Fold Path
      • Original Source: Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta: Setting in Motion the Wheel of Truth
  • Progress Check
  • Study Guide

Chapter 4: Epistemology, Metaphysics, and God

  • Take It Personally
  • Know Thyself: My Philosophical Presuppositions about Knowledge and Reality
  • 4.1 Preliminary Questions and Definitions
  • 4.2 Plato’s Metaphysical Epistemology
    • Divided Line Theory
    • Theory of Forms
    • Simile of the Sun
      • Original Source: Plato, Simile of the Sun
    • Allegory of the Cave
      • Original Source: Plato, Allegory of the Cave
  • 4.3 René Descartes’s Rational Method of Doubt
    • Historical Context
    • The Quest for Certainty
    • Method of Doubt
      • Original Source: René Descartes, First Meditation
    • Cogito Ergo Sum—I Think, Therefore I Am
      • Original Source: René Descartes, Second Meditation, featuring the Cogito
      • Original Source: René Descartes, Second Meditation, Featuring The Wax Example
  • 4.4 John Locke’s Empiricist Theory of Ideas
    • Tabula Rasa
    • Criticisms of Innate Ideas
    • Primary and Secondary Qualities of Objects
  • 4.5 David Hume’s Radical Skepticism
    • On the Origin of Ideas
    • Rejection of the Cogito
    • Association of Ideas
    • Critique of Causality
    • “Hume’s Fork” and Types of Reasoning
      • Original Source: David Hume, An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding
  • 4.6 Immanuel Kant’s Synthesis of Reason and Sensory Experience
    • The Role of the Senses in Knowledge
    • The Copernican Revolution in Epistemology
    • A Priori Elements of Knowledge
    • Kantian versus Platonic Forms
    • The Categories of Cause and Substance
    • Metaphysics and the Regulative Function of Transcendental Ideas
      • Original Source: Immanuel Kant, Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics
  • 4.7 Critiques of Traditional Western Approaches to Epistemology and Metaphysics
    • Standpoint Epistemology
      • Original Source: Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought
    • Mind-Body Metaphysics
      • Original Source: Yasuo Yuasa, Toward an Eastern Mind-Body Theory
  • 4.8 Proofs for the Existence of God
    • St. Anselm’s Ontological Proof
    • St. Thomas Aquinas’s “Five Ways” – Proofs for the Existence of God
      • Original Source: St. Thomas Aquinas, Whether God Exists
  • Progress Check
  • Study Guide

Chapter 5: Ethics and Moral Decision Making

  • Take It Personally
  • Know Thyself: The Ethical Perspective Indicator
  • 5.1 Plato’s Character Ethics
    • Plato’s Teleology
    • Vision of the Soul
    • Moral Balance and Plato’s Functional Explanation of Morality
      • Original Source: Plato, Virtue, and Justice in the Individual and in the State
    • Plato’s Character Types
    • Know Thyself: Platonic Character Type Index (PCTI)
  • 5.2 Aristotle’s Virtue Ethics
    • Aristotle’s Teleology
    • Happiness (Eudaimonia) and the Ends of Human Life
    • Kinds of Lifestyles
    • Virtue and the Virtuous Lifestyle
      • Original Source: Nicomachean Ethics
  • 5.3 Jeremy Bentham’s Utilitarian Ethics
    • The Principle of Utility
    • Is-Ought Fallacy
    • The Hedonic Calculus
    • The Theory of Sanctions
      • Original Source: Jeremy Bentham, An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation
  • 5.4 Immanuel Kant’s Deontological Ethics
    • The Rational Basis of Morality
    • Concept of the Good Will
    • Notion of Duty
    • Maxims and Moral Behavior
    • The Categorical Imperative
    • Autonomy versus Heteronomy of the Will
      • Original Source: Immanuel Kant, On Pure Moral Philosophy
    • The Impermissibility of Lying: Maria von Herbert’s Correspondence with Kant
  • 5.5 Carol Gilligan and Nel Noddings’ Care Ethics and Male Moral Bias
    • Male Bias in Moral Research
    • Gilligan’s Ethic of Care
    • Nel Noddings and Care Ethics
      • Original Source: Nel Noddings, Caring: A Feminine Approach to Ethics and Moral Education
  • 5.6 Friedrich Nietzsche’s Will to Power
    • God Is Dead
      • Original Source: Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, The Gay Science
    • Will to Power
    • Master versus Slave Morality
    • Traditional (Herd) Morality and the Revaluation of All Values
    • Evaluating Values
    • The Superman/Übermensch
  • 5.7 Religion and Ethics: Islamic, Hindu, and Christian Perspectives
    • Islamic Ethics
      • Original Source: Riffat Hassan, Islamic View of Human Rights
    • Hindu Ethics
      • Original Source: Ashok Kumar Malhotra, Transcreation of the Bhagavad Gita
    • Christian Ethics
      • Original Source: Brian Berry, Roman Catholic Ethics: Three Approaches
  • Progress Check
  • Study Guide

Chapter 6: Political Philosophy

  • Take It Personally
  • Know Thyself: My Political Outlook
  • 6.1 Political Philosophy versus Politics and Political Science
  • 6.2 Plato’s Republic
    • The Individual and the State
    • Plato’s Class System
    • Imperfect Societies
    • Women, Marriage, and Family in the Republic
      • Original Source: Plato, The Nature of Woman
  • 6.3 Thomas Hobbes and John Locke’s Social Contract Theories
    • Thomas Hobbes
      • Original Source: Thomas Hobbes, Of the Causes, Generation, and Definition of a Commonwealth
    • John Locke
      • Original Source: John Locke, Of the Ends of Political Society and Government
  • 6.4 Karl Marx’s Socialism
    • Marx’s Metaphysics and Dialectical Materialism
    • Class Conflict
    • Alienation as a Byproduct of Capitalism
    • Idolatry/Fetishism of Commodities
    • Division of Labor
    • After Capitalism
      • Original Source: Karl Marx, Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts
  • 6.5 Martin Luther King Jr.’s Philosophy of Nonviolence
    • Influences on King
    • Logic of Nonviolence
      • Original Source: Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” Speech
      • Original Source: Martin Luther King Jr., Where Do We Go From Here?
  • Progress Check
  • Study Guide

Anthony Falikowski taught philosophy for over 30 years at Sheridan College, and is the author of several books, including Moral Philosophy for Modern Life and Let’s Be Reasonable: A Basic Guide to Rational Thinking. Susan Mills is Associate Professor of Philosophy at MacEwan University, and has published multiple papers on early modern philosophy.

  • Original Sources: Numerous primary readings are included, introducing students directly to the philosophical work of diverse thinkers ranging from Plato to Martin Luther King Jr. Each reading is thoughtfully excerpted and is followed by reflective questions
  • Philosopher Profiles: Abstract ideas are connected to the lives of real historical figures through fascinating biographical profiles
  • Take It Personally: To illustrate how philosophy can be useful and relevant, each chapter begins by placing the material in a personal context
  • Know Thyself Diagnostics: This book takes seriously—as did Socrates—the Delphic Oracle’s dictum to “know thyself.” Students are given self-diagnostics to explore their own philosophical values, ideals, and beliefs
  • Philosophers in Action: Philosophy is something you do, not just something you know. Prompts are provided throughout the text inviting students to conduct thought experiments, analyze concepts, and discuss and debate controversial points
  • Thinking about Your Thinking: These “metacognitive prompts” require students to engage in higher-order thinking, not only about the presented readings and ideas, but also with respect to their own values, assumptions, and beliefs
  • Plus: Built-in study guides, diagrams, famous philosophical quotations, comics, feature boxes, and more

Read a sample from Chapter 1: What is Philosophy? from the advance page proofs of Experiencing Philosophy

  • • A student companion site offers true-false quiz questions, flashcards, an interactive essay outline builder, and original short stories that connect with the book’s themes.
  • • An instructor site provides true-false questions for quiz purposes, additional questions for discussion or essays, and slideshows.