Table of Contents

Documentation and Research

Avoiding Plagiarism—and Choosing When and What to Quote
Citation and Documentation
Incorporating Sources

  • Summarizing
    Paraphrasing
    Quoting Directly
    • Formatting Quotations
      • Short Prose Quotations
        Long Prose Quotations
        Verse Quotations
        Quotations within Quotations
        Adding to or Deleting from a Quotation

        • Using square brackets to add to a quotation
          Using an ellipsis to delete from a quotation
      • Integrating Quotations
        • Avoiding “dumped” quotations
  • Signal Phrases

MLA Style

About In-Text Citations

  1. in-text citations
  2. no signal phrase
  3. placing of in-text citations
  4. in-text citation when text is in parentheses
  5. page number unavailable
  6. one page or less
  7. multiple authors
  8. corporate author
  9. more than one work by the same author cited
  10. multi-volume works
  11. two or more authors with the same last name
  12. indirect quotations
  13. short poems
  14. longer poems
  15. novels or short stories
  16. plays
  17. works without page numbers
  18. sacred texts
  19. works in an anthology or book of readings
  20. tweets

About Works Cited

MLA Core Elements

  • Author
    Title of Source
    Title of Container
    Other Contributers
    Version
    Number
    Publisher
    Publication Date
    Location

MLA Optional Elements

  • Date Of Original Publication
    City of Publication
    Books in a Series
    Unexpected Type of Work
    Date of Access

Examples

  1. single author
  2. two authors
  3. three of more authors
  4. corporate author, no author identified
  5. works with an anonymous author
  6. two or more works by the same author
  7. works under a pseudonym
  8. edited works
  9. works in translation
  10. selections from anthologies or collections of readings
  11. cross-references for works from the same collection or anthology
  12. multi-volume works
  13. different editions
  14. republished sources
  15. reference work entries
  16. works with a title in the title
  17. material from prefaces, introductions
  18. magazine articles
  19. newspaper articles
  20. journal articles
  21. book reviews
  22. periodical publications in online databases
  23. illustrated books
  24. graphic narratives
  25. films or television episodes
  26. online videos
  27. radio broadcasts
  28. podcasts
  29. recorded music
  30. live performances
  31. works of visual art
  32. interviews
  33. online projects
  34. e-books
  35. information databases
  36. entry in a wiki
  37. blog post
  38. e-mail message
  39. tweet
  40. comment posted on a webpage

MLA Style Sample

APA Style

Incorporated Sources in APA Style

  • Summaraizing
    Paraphrasing
    Quoting Directly
    Formating Quotations
    • Short Quotations
      Long Quotations
      Quotations within Quotations
      Adding to or Deleteing from a Quotation
      • Using square brackets to add to a quotation
        Using an ellipsis to delete from a quotation

      Integrating Quotations

      • Avoiding “dumped” quotations

    Signal Phrases

About In-text Citations

  1. in-text citation
  2. no signal phrase (or author not named in a signal phrase)
  3. titles of stand-alone works
  4. titles of articles and chapters of books
  5. placing of in-text citations
  6. citations when text is in parentheses
  7. electronic source—page number unavailable
  8. two or more dates for a work
  9. multiple authors
  10. corporate author
  11. author not given
  12. date not given
  13. two or more works in the same citation
  14. two or more authors with the same last name
  15. works in a collection of readings or anthology
  16. indirect source
  17. private and personal communications

About References

  1. book with single author
  2. two to seven authors
  3. more than seven authors
  4. corporate author
  5. works with unknown author
  6. two or more works by the same author
  7. edited works
  8. works with an author and a translator
  9. selections from anthologies or collections of readings
  10. electronic version of a print book
  11. journal articles
  12. abstract of a journal article
  13. magazine articles
  14. newspaper articles
  15. book reviews
  16. reference work entries
  17. films and video recordings
  18. episodes from television series
  19. podcasts
  20. music recordings
  21. interviews
  22. documents on a website
  23. blog posts
  24. entries in a wiki
  25. tweets
  26. other Web references
  27. maps or charts

APA Style Sample

Chicago Style
About Chicago Style

  1. notes
  2. titles: italics/quotation marks
  3. multiple references to the same work
  4. page number or date unavailable
  5. two or more dates for a work
  6. two or three authors
  7. four or more authors
  8. author unknown/corporate author/government document
  9. works from a collection of readings or anthology
  10. indirect source
  11. two or more works by the same author
  12. edited works
  13. translated works
  14. e-books
  15. magazine articles
  16. newspaper articles
  17. journal articles
  18. films and video recordings
  19. television broadcasts
  20. sound recordings
  21. interviews and personal communications
  22. book reviews
  23. blog posts
  24. websites
  25. online videos
  26. tweets

Chicago Style Sample

CSE Style

In-text Citation
List of References
CSE Style Sample

Sample Essay (MLA Style)

Sample Essay (APA Style)

Posted on July 8, 2016