Table of Contents



1. Thinking
2. Assertions
3. Critical Thinking and Logic
4. Facts versus Opinions
5. A Brief Introduction to Argument

Chapter One: Assertions

1. Types of Sentences
2. Ambiguity
3. The Logical Form of and Assertion

Chapter Two: Implication

1. Implication between Assertions
2. Implication within a Conditional

Chapter Three: Contradiction

1. Subject-Predicate Assertions
2. Conjunctions and Disjunctions
3. Goals and Alternatives

Chapter Four: Conditionals and Universal Assertions

1. Conditionals
2. What Makes a Contitional True
3. Universal Assertions
4. Contradicting a Universal Assertion
5. Contraties to a Universal Assertion
6. Counter-examples
7. Quantified Assertions with Complex Predicates

Chapter Five: Prescriptive Assertions

1. Prescriptive Terms
2. Types of Values
3. Quantified Prescriptive Assertions

Chapter Six: Explanations

1. Explanation Indicators
2. The Logical Form of A Syllogism
3. Causal Explanations

Chapter Seven: Arguments

1. Argument Indicators
2. The Argument Outline

Chapter Eight: Validity, Deduction, and Induction

1. Validity
2. Checking Syllogisms for Validity
3. Validity and Soundness
4. Deduction
5. Induction
6. Validity and Logical Conflict

Chapter Nine: Unstated Premises

1. Implicit Premises
2. General, Unstated Premises
3. Argument Reconstruction

Chapter Ten: Relevance

1. Direct Relevance
2. Indirect Relevance
3. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

Chapter Eleven: Basic Fallacies of Relevance

1. Begging the Question
2. The Straw Man Fallacy
3. Ad Hominem Fallacies
4. Shifting the Burden of Proof

Chapter Twelve: Fallacies of Emotional Appeal

1. Basic Types of Emotion
2. The Relevance of Emotion in Thinking
3. The Relevance of Emotion in Argument
4. The Irrelevance of Emotion in Argument
5. Fallacious Appeals to Anger
6. Fallacious Appeals to Gratitude
7. Fallacious Appeals to Fear
8. Fallacious Appeals to Hope

Chapter Thirteen: Sources of Evidence

1. Primary Sources of Evidence
2. Conditions of Observation
3. Qualifications and Expertise
4. Bias
5. Consensus of Opinion

Chapter Fourteen: Causal Arguments

1. The Form of a Causal Argument
2. Post Hoc Fallacies
3. Correlation-to-Cause Fallacies
4. Scientific Causal Arguments

Chapter Fifteen: Arguments from Analogy

1. Inductive Generalization Arguments
2. Basic Inductive Analogies

Answer Key

Posted on November 2, 2015