Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

Part I: Introduction

Chapter 1: Reasoning and Critical Thinking

1.1 Reasoning
1.2 The Concept of Logical Strength
1.3 Truth, Logical Strength, and Soundness
1.4 Critical Thinking Skills
1.5 Critical Thinking and the Science of Logic
1.6 Self-Test No. 1
1.7 Questions for Discussion

Part II: Meaning

Chapter 2: Meaning and Definition

2.1 The Complexity of Language
2.2 The Meaning of Language
2.3 The Main Functions of Language
2.4 Self-Test No. 2
2.5 Questions for Discussion
2.6 Definition
2.7 The Purposes of Definition
2.8 Methods of Definition
2.9 Assessing Reportive Definitions
2.10 Assessing Stipulative and Essentialist Definitions
2.11 A Warning
2.12 Self-Test No. 3
2.13 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 3: Clarifying Meaning

3.1 The Principle of Charity
3.2 Linguistic Ambiguity
3.3 Self-Test No. 4
3.4 Analytic, Contradictory, and Synthetic Statements
3.5 Self-Test No. 5
3.6 Descriptive and Evaluative Meaning
3.7 Self-Test No. 6
3.8 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
3.9 Self-Test No. 7
3.10 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 4: Reconstructing Arguments

4.1 Reconstruction
4.2 Missing Premises and Conclusions
4.3 Self-Test No. 8
4.4 Special Cases
4.5 Self-Test No. 9
4.6 The Structure of Arguments
4.7 Self-Test No. 10
4.8 Another Warning
4.9 Questions for Discussion

Part III: Assessing Arguments

Chapter 5: Strategies for Assessing Arguments

5.1 The Fallacies Approach
5.2 The Criterial Approach
5.3 Seven Rules for Assessing Arguments

Chapter 6: Assessing Truth Claims

6.1 Theories of Truth
6.2 Types of Truth Claims
6.3 Acceptability
6.4 Self-Test No. 11
6.5 Questions for Discussion
6.6 Assessing the Acceptability of Premises
6.7 Some Particular Fallacies
6.8 Self-Test No. 12
6.9 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 7: Assessing Relevance

7.1 The Criterion of Relevance
7.2 Recognizing Irrelevant Premises
7.3 Appeals to Authority (1)
7.4 Some Particular Fallacies
7.5 Self-Test No. 13
7.6 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 8: Assessing Adequacy

8.1 The Criterion of Adequacy
8.2 Appeals to Authority (2)
8.3 Appeals to Ignorance
8.4 The Slippery Slope Fallacy
8.5 Causal Fallacies
8.6 Self-Test No. 14
8.7 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 9: Deductive Reasoning

9.1 The Nature of Deductive Reasoning
9.2 Truth-Functional Statements
9.3 Formal Validity and Soundness
9.4 Valid Argument Forms
9.5 Formal Invalidity
9.6 Self-Test No. 15
9.7 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 10: Inductive Reasoning

10.1 The Nature of Inductive Reasoning
10.2 Inductive Generalization
10.3 Statistical Syllogism
10.4 Induction by Confirmation
10.5 Analogical Reasoning
10.6 Self-Test No. 16
10.7 Questions for Discussion

Part IV: Applications

Chapter 11: Scientific Reasoning

11.1 Causation / Correlation
11.2 Mill’s Methods
11.3 Self-Test No. 17
11.4 Argument to the Best Explanation
11.5 Case for Discussion: Semmelweis’s Discovery of Anti-sepsis

Chapter 12. Moral Reasoning

12.1 Moral Judgements and Judgements of Taste
12.2 Moral Justification
12.3 Appeals to Principles of Right and Wrong
12.4 Self-Test No. 18
12.5 Questions for Discussion
12.6 Appeals to Consequences
12.7 Self-Test No. 19
12.8 Questions for Discussion
12.9 Rational Agreement
12.10 Moral Maturity
12.11 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 13: Arguing Back

13.1 Explaining the Weakness
13.2 Counter-examples
13.3 Absurd Examples
13.4 Counter-arguments
13.5 Self-Test No. 20
13.6 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 14: Irrational Techniques of Persuasion

14.1 Loaded Terms
14.2 Vague Terms
14.3 Loaded Questions
14.4 False Confidence
14.5 Selectivity
14.6 Misleading Statistics
14.7 Humour
14.8 Red Herring
14.9 Guilt by Association
14.10 Persuasive Redefinition
14.11 Self-Test No. 21
14.12 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 15: Critiquing the Media

15.1 Determining Bias
15.2 Is Objective Reporting Possible?
15.3 How to Assess News Reports
15.4 Another Warning
15.5 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 16: Writing and Assessing Argumentative Essays

16.1 Writing Argumentative Essays: Structure
16.2 Writing Argumentative Essays: Style
16.3 Assessing Argumentative Essays
16.4 Assessing a Sample Argumentative Essay
16.5 Question for Discussion

Chapter 17: Strategies for Organizing an Argumentative Essay

17.1 Advocate’s Strategy
17.2 Critic’s Strategy
17.3 Impartial Adjudicator’s Strategy

Appendix I: Paradoxes and Puzzles

Appendix II: Answers to Self-Tests

Index

Posted on October 29, 2015