Table of Contents
TOPIC I : NECESSITY, CONTINGENCY, AND CAUSATION
- The four Causes
- Senses of the Necessary
- Causation, Chance, and Spontaneity
- Science and the Accidental
- Two Kinds of Existents
- Proof of the Necessary of Existence
- What is Possible of Existence is Necessary of Existence from something else
- Characteristics of the Necessary of Existence
- That God can only do what He does do
I.4. Al-Ghazali and Averroes
- Whether the First Cause is simple
- About the Natural Sciences
I.5. St. Thomas Aquinas
- How absolute Necessity can exist in Created Things
- That God does not will other things in a necessary way
- Difficulties in the Concept of Will
I.6. Siger of Brabant
- Commentary on Necessity
I.7. The Condemnation of 1277
- Extending God’s Power
I.8. Henry of Ghent
- The Finiteness of the World’s Past
I.9. John Duns Scotus
- Proof of a First Cause
- The First Cause causes contingently
- The Omnipotence of God
- Could God make things better than He does?
I.10. William of Ockham
- Essentially ordered Causes
- Can it be proved that there exists a first productive Cause?
- Can it be proved that there exists a first conserving Cause?
- Is God able to do Everything that it is possible for a Creature to do?
- Can God do things which He neither does do nor will do?
- Does not being able to do the Impossible belong to God before not being able to be done by God
belongs to the Impossible?
- Can God make a better world than this one?
TOPIC II : IS THERE AN INFINITELY PERFECT BEING?
- Why there must be an eternal Mover that is not itself in Motion
- The first Mover has no Size
- The Principle on which depend the Heavens and Nature
II.2. St. Anselm
- The Being “a greater than which cannot be thought”
II.3. Al-Ghazali and Averroes
- Can we prove that the First Being is incorporeal?
II.4. St. Thomas Aquinas
- God’s Existence is not self-evident to us
- The five Ways
- A Being which just is its own Existence
II.5. John Duns Scotus
- The first efficient Cause has infinite Power
- The Infinity of the most excellent Being
II.6. William of Ockham
- Why the first efficient Cause cannot be proved to have infinite Power
- Why it cannot be proven that the most perfect Being is infinite in Perfection
- Aristotle did not intend to prove the Infinity of the First Cause
TOPIC III : COULD THE WORLD BE ETERNALLY EXISTENT?
- Did Motion ever have a Beginning? Will it ever end?
III.2. St. Augustine
- What is Time?
- How Creatures have always been but are not co-eternal with God
III.3. Al-Ghazali and Averroes
- Is the Doctrine of the “Philosophers” as regards the Production of the World coherent?
III.4. Moses Maimonides
- Arguments of the Mutakallemim purporting to show that the Universe was created out of nothing
- Different views on the Eternity of the Universe among those who believe God exists
- That the Universe is eternal has not been proven
- The view that God has produced the Universe from all Eternity and how it is to be evaluated
III.5. St. Thomas Aquinas
- That it is not necessary for Creatures to have existed always
- That God could have created an eternal World
III.6. Henry of Ghent
- That a created thing cannot have existed from Eternity
- Contradictions involved in the view that God makes eternal things
III.7. John Duns Scotus
- Arguments on both sides and their Refutations
III.8. William of Ockham
- Could God make a World that has existed from Eternity?
TOPIC IV: DETERMINISM, FREE WILL, AND DIVINE FOREKNOWLEDGE
- Determinism and the Truth of future contingent Statements
- How can God know everything about the Future?
IV.3. St. Anselm
- The Harmony of Foreknowledge and Free Will
IV.4. St. Thomas Aquinas
- Does God’s Knowledge extend to Future Contingents?
IV.5. Siger of Brabant
- How Contingency arises in the World
IV.6. John Duns Scotus
- How God can know Future Contingents by knowing His own Will
IV.7. William of Ockham
- Why Scotus’s Solution will not work
- Propositions in the Present tense but about the Future
TOPIC V: IDENTITY AND DISTINCTION
- Senses of ‘same’
- Senses of ‘One’
- How the Motion of the Agent is the same as the Motion in the Recipient, yet different
- Sameness and Difference in the Trinity
- How to have many Persons in one God
V.4. John Duns Scotus
- Qualified and unqualified Distinctions
V.5. William of Ockham
- No formal Distinction without Real Distinction
TOPIC VI : UNIVERSALS AND PARTICULARS
- A World based on Archetypes
- Categories and the things there are
- Universals and Particulars
- The Problem of Universals
- Are first Principles Universals?
- Substance and Universals
- The five “Predicables”
- The “deeper Questions”
VI.5. Garlandus Compotista
- The Predicables are just Utterances
- The Existence and the Nature of Universals
- Universals and Signification
- What Propositions signify
- The Nature of Universals
- The Essences of things
VI.8. John Duns Scotus
- Natures are not of themselves individuated
- What makes a Substance individual
- Is a Universal something in things?
VI.9. William of Ockham
- Universals and Distinction
- The Distinction of First and Second Intentions
- The Synonymy of Concrete and Abstract Nouns
- Is a Universal a Singular?
- Is every Universal a Quality of the Mind?
- Is a Category made up of things outside the Mind or of Concepts of Things?
TOPIC VII : SKEPTICISM
VII.1. St. Augustine
- Arguments against Academic Skepticism
- Internal Knowledge
- Can we know there is something above Human Reason?
VII.2. Henry of Ghent
- Knowledge requires Divine Illumination of the Mind
VII.3. Siger of Brabant
- Some Judgments are to be trusted
VII.4. John Duns Scotus
- Refutation of Henry and of Skepticism generally
VII.5. Nicholas of Autrecourt
- Certainty and the Principle of Non-Contradiction
TOPIC VIII : VIRTUE AND REASON, SIN AND SEX
- Excellence (Virtue) and the Mean
- Ethics and Deliberation
VIII.2. St. Augustine
- What is the Supreme Good for Human Beings?
- The Ultimate Good is not to be found in this Life
- How Order pervades everything
- The Works of Reason
- Why Adultery is evil
- Lust, a Penalty for the Original Sin
- What Sin and Vice consist in
VIII.5. St. Thomas Aquinas
- Goodness and Badness in outward Acts
- Is Pleasure bad?
- Is Enjoyment in the Thought of Fornication a Sin?
- Why Lechery is a Sin
- Sex in the Garden of Eden
TOPIC IX: THE “DARKNESS WHICH IS BEYOND INTELLECT”
- The One that is the Source of Being
- The Intelligence and its Relation to the Soul
IX.2. Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite
- The Transcendent Good
- How God can be called Wisdom
- The Mystical Theology
- The Divine Darkness
IX.3. John Scotus Eriugena
- Things that are and things that are not
- God as Hyper-being
- God’s Diffusion into all things
- The Return of the Many to the One
- The three Motions of the Soul
- The Indefinability of God
- The Self-creation of the Divine Darkness
- Man contains all Creatures
- The Return of all things to God
IX.4. Ibn Tufail
- The Experience of total Self-annihilation
IX.5. Meister Eckhart
- On the Names of God
- “God is One”
- The Intellect perceives God bare of Goodness and Being
- The “Negation of Negation”
- The Attraction of the Soul to the One
- “On Detachment”
TOPIC X: BODY, SOUL, AND INTELLECT
- What sort of accounts should we give in psychology?
- Is there movement in the soul?
- What type of entity is the soul?
- What accounts for thinking and knowledge?
- Is the intellect formed in the process of fetal generation?
X.2. Alexander of Aphrodisias
- On the Intellect
- How to understand the potential and active intellects
- What does Aristotle’s definition of the soul tell us?
- Is the soul a substance?
- How do there come to be many individual human souls?
- Can the soul exist after the body has been destroyed?
- How does the human intellect come to know abstract essences?
- How does the intellect think?
- How does the soul relate to its powers?
- The nature of the material intellect
- The role of the agent intellect
X.6 Siger of Brabant and Thomas Aquinas
- How does the intellect unite with the body?
- Why the intellectual soul must be the form of the body
- Why the Averroists are wrong
- How Albert and Thomas go wrong
X.7 Peter John Olivi
- Why the human soul cannot be the form of the body
X.8. John Buridan
- In what way is the soul an actuality?
- How many souls does an individual have?
- Is the soul just its powers?
- How many powers does the soul have?
- Can the soul be spread throughout the body?
- Is the intellect passive as regards its objects?
- Can what knows something have the character of what it knows?
- Three theories about the intellect