Table of Contents

Acknowledgments

Part I: Introduction

Chapter 1: Reasoning and Critical Thinking

1.1 Reasoning

1.2 The Concept of Logical Strength

1.3 Truth, Logical Strength, and Soundness

1.4 Critical Thinking Skills

1.5 Critical Thinking and the Science of Logic

1.6 Self-Test No. 1

1.7 Questions for Discussion

Part II: Meaning

Chapter 2: Meaning and Definition

2.1 The Complexity of Language

2.2 The Meaning of Language

2.3 The Main Functions of Language

2.4 Self-Test No. 2

2.5 Questions for Discussion

2.6 Definition

2.7 The Purposes of Definition

2.8 Methods of Definition

2.9 Assessing Reportive Definitions

2.10 Assessing Stipulative and Essentialist Definitions

2.11 A Warning

2.12 Self-Test No. 3

2.13 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 3: Clarifying Meaning

3.1 The Principle of Charity

3.2 Linguistic Ambiguity

3.3 Self-Test No. 4

3.4 Analytic, Contradictory, and Synthetic Statements

3.5 Self-Test No. 5

3.6 Descriptive and Evaluative Meaning

3.7 Self-Test No. 6

3.8 Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

3.9 Self-Test No. 7

3.10 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 4: Reconstructing Arguments

4.1 Reconstruction

4.2 Missing Premises and Conclusions

4.3 Self-Test No. 8

4.4 Special Cases

4.5 Self-Test No. 9

4.6 The Structure of Arguments

4.7 Self-Test No. 10

4.8 Another Warning

4.9 Questions for Discussion

Part III: Assessing Arguments

Chapter 5: Strategies for Assessing Arguments

5.1 The Fallacies Approach

5.2 The Criterial Approach

5.3 Seven Rules for Assessing Arguments

Chapter 6: Assessing Truth Claims

6.1 Theories of Truth

6.2 Types of Truth Claims

6.3 Acceptability

6.4 Self-Test No. 11

6.5 Questions for Discussion

6.6 Assessing the Acceptability of Premises

6.7 Some Particular Fallacies

6.8 Self-Test No. 12

6.9 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 7: Assessing Relevance

7.1 The Criterion of Relevance

7.2 Recognizing Irrelevant Premises

7.3 Appeals To Authority (1)

7.4 Some Particular Fallacies

7.5 Self-Test No. 13

7.6 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 8: Assessing Adequacy

8.1 The Criterion of Adequacy

8.2 Appeals to Authority (2)

8.3 Appeals to Ignorance

8.4 The Slippery Slope Fallacy

8.5 Causal Fallacies

8.6 Self-Test No. 14

8.7 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 9: Deductive Reasoning

9.1 The Nature of Deductive Reasoning

9.2 Truth-Functional Statements

9.3 Formal Validity and Soundness

9.4 Valid Argument Forms

9.5 Formal Invalidity

9.6 Self-Test No. 15

9.7 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 10: Inductive Reasoning

10.1 The Nature of Inductive Reasoning

10.2 Inductive Generalization

10.3 Statistical Syllogism

10.4 Induction by Confirmation

10.5 Analogical Reasoning

10.6 Self-Test No. 16

10.7 Questions for Discussion

Part IV: Applications

Chapter 11: Scientific Reasoning

11.1 Causation / Correlation

11.2 Mill’s Methods

11.3 Self-Test No. 17

11.4 Argument to the Best Explanation

Unrestricted Hypotheses

11.5 Case for Discussion: Semmelweis’s Discovery of Anti-sepsis

Chapter 12: Moral Reasoning

12.1 Moral Judgments and Judgments of Taste

12.2 Moral Justification

12.3 Appeals to Principles of Right and Wrong

12.4 Self-Test No. 18

12.5 Questions for Discussion

12.6 Appeals to Consequences

12.7 Self-Test No. 19

12.8 Questions for Discussion

12.9 Rational Agreement

12.10 Moral Maturity

12.11 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 13: Arguing Back

13.1 Explaining the Weakness

13.2 Counter-examples

13.3 Absurd Examples

13.4 Counter-arguments

13.5 Self-Test No. 20

13.6 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 14: Irrational Techniques of Persuasion

14.1 Loaded Terms

14.2 Vague Terms

14.3 Loaded Questions

14.4 False Confidence

14.5 Selectivity

14.6 Misleading Statistics

14.7 Humour

14.8 Red Herring

14.9 Guilt By Association

14.10 Persuasive Redefinition

14.11 Self-Test No. 21

14.12 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 15: Critiquing the Media

15.1 Determining Bias

15.2 Is Objective Reporting Possible?

15.3 How to Assess News Reports

15.4 Another Warning

15.5 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 16: Writing and Assessing Argumentative Essays

16.1 Writing Argumentative Essays: Structure

16.2 Writing Argumentative Essays: Style

16.3 Assessing Argumentative Essays

16.4 Assessing a Sample Argumentative Essay

16.5 Questions for Discussion

Chapter 17: Strategies for Organizing an Argumentative Essay

17.1 Advocate’s Strategy

17.2 Critic’s Strategy

17.3 Impartial Adjudicator’s Strategy

Appendix I: Paradoxes and Puzzles

1. Logical Paradoxes

2. Puzzles

3. Solutions to the Puzzles

Appendix II: Answers to Self-Tests

Index

Posted on November 2, 2015